Exosomes are tiny vesicles that are released by all types of cells and found abundantly in bodily fluids. Exosomes allow cells to communicate with one another without being in direct contact. Their major role is to carry the information they hold and deliver signals between specific cells. Before the discovery of exosomes, the only known means of communication within the body were through hormones, immunology, and neurology.
Exosomes carry messages in the form of transmembrane proteins and nucleotides, such as messenger RNA and microRNA, to nearby cells. For example, immune, cancer, and aging cells all secrete exosomes that contain highly unique packets of information. In this manner, they are able to target specific cells to enhance or interfere with its biological processes.
The most profound effect seen with placental exosomes is tissue repair. The regenerative effect of exosomes has been reported in many tissues in the body, such as nerve, heart, liver, kidney, skeleton, cartilage, muscle, pancreas, and dental pulp. Unlike stem cells, they are able to travel systemically without a clumping effect as seen with large doses of stem cell injections, and are small enough to cross the blood-brain barrier. By utilizing exosomes, the cells in our bodies are able to revitalize and produce profound benefits throughout the body.